Convert 10,50 polar to rectangular
REC(10,50)
1050
17.5% of 50
50*17.5%
50<*>17.5<%>
100 plus 50%
100+50%
100<+>50<%>
2 to the power of 8
2^8
28
2 to the power of 8
2^8
8
-1.0*5
NEG(5)
5<_>
Reciprocal value of sine of 50
1/SIN(50)
50*
Mean of 4.5, 6.7, 2.9 and 6.7
MEAN(4.5, 6.7, 2.9, 6.7)
Set calculator to SD mode
(clear stat memory)
4.5<@>6.7<@>2.9<@>6.7<@><\>
Correlation factor r of
10,12
11,15
12,18
14,16
r(data)
Set calculator to LR mode
(clear stat memory)
10<,>12<@>
11<,>15<@>
12<,>18<@>
14<,>16<@>
Convert 50 decimal to binary
BIN(50)
50
e (2.71....)
EXP(1)
1
5-BASE log of 10
5LOG(10)
5<,>10
Function gLOG(x) is an external function in
ADDON.OPO. External functions require the
operands to be separated with a comma (or point
for German users).
4.4 Memories
============
4.4.1 Statistics memories
=========================
The program allows for statistics calculations. A
maximum of 1000 numbers can be stored in this
statistics memory to be used for calculations in
SD mode. Also 1000 x,y numbers can be stored in
this memory when performing LR calculations. It
is possible to change numbers in the statistics
memory. Press Psion-Y to bring up the `Edit
statistics memory' dialog. Press the left-arrow
and right-arrow keys to scroll through all
numbers in statistics memory. A message will be
shown if the statistics memory does not contain
numbers.
After changing one or more numbers in statistics
memory all statistic functions will use these new
numbers.
4.4.2 Calculator memories
=========================
Calc3a has 26 memories called MA..MZ. The M+
(Psion-+) and M- (Psion--) buttons can be used to
store numbers into these memories. These memories
have an initial value of 0. The current value of
the active memory M is displayed on the top left
LCD display.
Press Psion-E to change the contents of one of
the memories. Use the left-arrow and right- arrow
key to select a memory to modify.
4.4.3 Recall buffer
===================
The application maintains a 'recall' buffer. Each
entered number and calculation result will be
stored to this recall buffer. Press Psion-S to
scroll through all previously entered numbers. To
recall a previously entered number or result
press the left arrow or right arrow key. The
numbers will appear on the calculator LCD. The
recall buffer has room for 50 numbers.
4.4.4 Export of memories
========================
The contents of the memories, statistics memory
and recall buffer can be exported to a plain text
file. Press Psion-G to bring up the `Export'
dialog. It possible to select the export of: -
memories A..Z and/or - statistics memory and/or -
recall buffer.
The contents of the different memories are
written to a single text file. These files can be
used to import into a spreadsheet. A typical export
to text file looks like:
Memories A-Z
100.45
0
.
.
0
44.8
0
Statistics memory
15,30
45,80
60,100
Recall buffer
15
30
0
.
.
0
45
80
66
2.01515152
2.01515152
1.41956032
5. Equations
============
Calc3a allows for entering equations. These
equations are stored in a database called
\OPD\CALC3A.EQN. Equations in this database can
be evaluated or solved.
5.1 The equation database
=========================
It is possible to set up a database with all your
frequently used equations and conversion
formulas. Each equation is stored with a
description (max 30 characters). The equation
database manager (EDM) shows up each time you
want to evaluate or solve an equation.
The top frame of this dialog displays the number
of equations currently stored in the database and
the equation itself. This equation line is
updated each time you move the cursor over a new
equation.
The lower area of the dialog shows four buttons.
The `Evaluate' button is replaced by a `Solve'
button when solving equations. Keys available in
the EDM:
Up Move cursor one row up
Down Move cursor one row down
Pg-Up Move cursor one page up
Pg-Dn Move cursor one page down
Home Move cursor to first equation
End Move cursor to last equation
E or Psion-E Enter equation/description
selected with cursor
D or Psion-D Delete equation selected with cursor
or Delete
U or Psion-U Enter new equation
V or Psion-V Evaluate equation
or Enter
S or Psion-S Solve equation
or Enter
MENU Bring up the equation database
main menu
X or Psion-X Exit equation database and return to
or Esc main calculator
F or Psion-F Search for equation. Searches from
current cursor position to end of
database. Search is case sensitive.
G or Psion-G Find next occurrence
5.2 Input of equations
======================
Press Psion-U from the main calculator screen to
bring up the equation database. Select an
equation with the selection bar (cursor) and
press U or Psion-U to modify an equation or E or
Psion-E to enter a new equation.
The `Equation evaluator' dialog has two fields.
One is for the short description (30 characters)
used as an identification for the equation. The
`Equation' field contains the equation itself.
This equation may be 255 characters long.
[Notice the constraints!]
In equations you can use:
- Variables with names that only contain (a
maximum of 12) alphabetical characters. The
length of variable names is limited to 10
characters and must be entered lowercase;
- All OPL math functions as mentioned in the
Psion programming manual, function names must
always be entered uppercase; Parenthesis;
- Trigonometric functions, radians/degrees
depending on settings in system screen.
Available functions/constants for equations:
ABS(x) LN(x) EXP(x) +
ACOS(x) LOG(x) SIN(x) -
ASIN(x) MAX(a,b) SQR(x) *
ATAN(x) MEAN(a,b) STD(a,b) /
COS(x) MIN(a,b) TAN(x) 5E-5
DEG(x) RAD(x) SUM(a,b) x**y
INTFx) RND VAR(x)
5.3 Delete equations
====================
Press Psion-U from the main calculator screen to
bring up the equation database. To delete an
equation just move the cursor over the equation
and press Delete, Psion-D or just D.
5.4 Evaluating equations
========================
Press Psion-U from the calculator main screen to
evaluate an existing equation. Select an equation
from the EDM and press V or Psion-V to execute
the evaluator. The Variables/result' dialog is
shown on screen. All the variables used in your
equation will be shown in this dialog. If you
used more than four variables in your equation
use the left-arrow and right-arrow key to
view/enter the other variables.
Enter the contents of the variables and press
Enter. The result will be displayed in the same
dialog on the last line. To repeat an evaluation
just change a variable when desired and press
Enter.
If the equation was not entered correctly
(missing parenthesis, missing operators) a
message will be shown on screen and the result
will equal to 0.
6. Solver
=========
6.1 The equation database
=========================
The solver uses an equation from the equation
database. Please refer to chapter 5.1 for more
information about the equation database manager.
The solver allows for solving a single unknown
variable in an equation. Therefor it uses method
`Secant' to find a single solution.
6.2 Solving equation
====================
Press Psion-L from the calculator main screen to
solve an existing equation. Pick an equation from
the EDM and press S or Psion-S to start the
solver.
The Variables/result' dialog is shown on screen.
Enter the values of the known variables. If you
used more than four variables in your equation
use the left-arrow and right-arrow key to
view/enter the other variables. The variable to
be solved can be set to zero.
Press Enter to bring up the solver settings
dialog.
Unknown variable to solve
Press Tab on this field to view all variables
used in your equation. Select the variable to be
solved from the list.
Tolerance
Tolerance in the result of the solving process.
The smaller the tolerance the more accurate
answers you get.
Maximum number of iterations
Maximum number of iterations to find the result.
Initial guess1/guess2
Two possible values for the unknown variable.
These two guesses form a X-range for the solver.
Please select an range as narrow as possible to
get accurate answers. The solver can be started
by pressing Enter. After a few seconds (depending
on the complexity of the equation) the result is
shown in the Variables/result dialog. If an error
occurs during the solve process the result will
always equal 0.
Note : Guess1X min
10. External math functions
==========================
The Calc3a application allows for external math
functions to be accessed in a OPO file. Enclosed
with this package is an example OPL file that
illustrates the usage of external OPL functions.
In this file the procedure `Register()' must
always be available. This function is used by
Calc3a to determine what functions are available
in the external OPO file and what hotkey must be
used to access that particular function. There
are several procedures available for interfacing
with the Calc3a application. So, for each added
function you must add a RegFunc- entry to the
`Register()' procedure.
Example
PROC Register:
RegFunc:("v","VecLen")
ENDP
PROC VecLen:
LOCAL x,y,length
rem store operand 1 in x
x=GetOp1:
rem store operand 2 in y
y=GetOp2:
length=SQR(x**2+y**2)
rem Send result to calculator
SetRes:(length)
ENDP
Interfacing functions
PROC RegFunc:(key$,func$)
Register your function to the Calc3a application.
key$ - single character hotkey (a..z, A..Z)
func$ - function name to link to hotkey
do not contain ":" in function
name. The number of functions to
register is limited to 52.
PROC GetStatX:(Elm%)
Get X-element Elm% from statistics memory.
Available in SD and LR mode
PROC SetStatX:(Elm%,Value)
Set X-element Elm% in statistics memory.
Available in SD and LR mode
PROC GetStatY:(Elm%)
Get Y-element Elm% from statistics memory. Only
available in LR mode
PROC SetStatY:(Elm%,Value)
Set Y-element Elm% in statistics memory. Only
available in LR mode
PROC GetElm%:
Number of elements in statistics memory.
PROC SetRes:(Result)
Send result to calculator
PROC GetRes:
Get last result from calculator
GetOp1:
Get operand 1
GetOp2:
Get operand 2
To access an external function from within the
calculator:
- Press the diamond key;
- Press the hotkey.
External functions may contain all OPL commands
including dialogs. Please refer to ADDON.OPL for
more information. If this information is
insufficient, contact the author for more
information about using external functions.
Press Psion-Z or select PAGE_C to view all
external functions.
11. The author
==============
11.1 How to contact the author
==============================
The author can be reached by mailing to:
Alfa Computing
Richard Schmidt
Richard Sturenberghlaan 50
2273 GX VOORBURG
THE NETHERLANDS (EUR)
Email @ Compuserve : 100735,331
Email @ Internet : 100735.331@compuserve.com
11.2 Disclaimer
===============
The author takes no responsibility for any lost
data or hardware malfunctions of any kind due to
the use of this software or any other software
that ships with Calc3a.
11.3 How To register
====================
- send cash in envelope to my postal address or
- use SwReg on compuserve to register
SWReg id : 7171
Product : Calc3a or
- Only for Dutch users
Stort voor registratie Hfl 20,-- op
girorekening 6338889 tnv R.G.Schmidt
te Voorburg o.v.v. uw adresgegevens.
12. Appendices
==============
12.1 Function reference
=======================
+dB - add dB (decibel) - UC - B
1/X - reciprocal of x - UC - i
10^X - ten to the power of x - UCO - L
2^X - two to the power of x - UC - y
A - constant term of regression a - KL - A
ABS - absolute of x - UCO - a
ACOS - inverse cosine of x - UCO - C
AND - logical AND - UC - G
ASIN - inverse sine of x - UCO - S
ATAN - inverse tangents of x - UCO - T
B - regression coefficient b - KL - W
COS - cosine of x - UCO - c
COSH - hyper cosine of x - UCO - h
COTG - cotangents of x - UC - g
dB - convert to decibel - UC - D
DEG - convert radians to degrees - UC - J
DIV - integer division - BC, - d
EXP - e to the power of x - UCO - N
Erg - convert to energetic - UC - E
EX - sum of x - KSO - u
Ex^2 - sum of square of x - KS - U
FRAC - fractal part of x - UC - f
INT - integer part of x - UCO - I
LN - natural logarithm of x - UCO - n
LOG - logarithm of x - UCO - l
MAX - lowest value of x - KSO - &
MEAN - mean of x - KSO - \
MIN - lowest value of x - KSO - ^ or M
MOD - modulo - BC - m
n - number of statistics data in memory - KS - ;
nCr - combinations - BC - o
nPr - permutations - BC - O
NEG - negative - UC - _
NOT - logical NOT - BC - F
`' '' - convert to degrees-min-sec - UC - ' or Q
OR - logical OR - UC - H
PI - pi 3.14... - KCO - ~ or z
Pol - convert to polar - BC - p
r - correlation of x,y - KL - v
RAD - convert degrees to radians - UC - K
Rec - convert to rectangular - BC - P
RND# - random number between 0 and 1 - KCO - #
SIN - sine of x - UCO - s
SINH - hyper sine of x - UC - j
SQR - square root of x - UCO - r
STD - standard deviation of x - KSO - [
SURF - calculate surface in LR memory - KL - Z
TAN - tangents of x - UCO - t
TANH - hyper tangents of x - UC - k
VAR - variation of x - KSO - V
X! - factorial of x - UC - !
X^ - estimate x - UL - X
X^Y - x to the power of y - BC - x
XSQR - x th root of y - BC - q
X^2 - square of x - UCO - R
Y^ - estimate y - UL - Y
XOR - logical XOR operation - UC - w
<- - convert degrees-min-sec to degrees - UC - b
Characteristics:
U = unary function
B = binary function
C = available in COMPute mode
L = available in LR mode
S = available in SD mode
O = standard CALC/OPL function
K = constant (no argument)
12.2 Keyboard reference
========================
Menu
Display menu
Control-A .. Control-Z
Select active memory M
Psion-Control-A .. Z
Store number to memory M
Shift-Control-A .. Z
Load number from memory M
Help
Display help
Diamond
Execute external math function in ADDON.OPO
Left-arrow
Recall previously entered number or result in
recall buffer
Right-arrow
Recall next entered number or result in recall
buffer
Up-arrow
Store number to active memory
Dn-arrow or Psion-M
Load number from active memory
PgUp
Select previous page with 60 buttons
PgDn
Select next page with 60 buttons
Psion-Q
Set preferences
Psion-X
Terminate Calc3a application
Psion-*
Clear active memory
Psion-F
Alter display format (GEN/SCI/FIX/ENG/OCT/BIN/HEX)
Shift-Psion-F
Alter display format reverse order
Psion-T
Alter trigonometric mode (RAD/DEG)
Psion-C
Alter calculation mode (SD/LR/COMP)
Psion-R
Register your copy of Calc3a
Psion-E
Edit memory M
Psion-Y
Edit statistics memory
Psion-O
Octal mode
Psion-D
Decimal mode (GEN)
Psion-B
Binary mode
Psion-H
Hexadecimal mode
Psion-/
Bring
Psion-J
Plot settings
Psion-K
Execute XY plot
Psion-S
Show recall buffer
Psion-+
MAIN: Add number to active memory
PLOT: Enlarge visor
Psion--
MAIN: Subtract number from memory
PLOT: Enlarge visor
Psion-U
Edit equation
Psion-L
Evaluate equation
Psion-Z
List all registered external functions
Psion-G
Export memories
Psion-A
Display about screen
Psion-I
Constants list
Psion-N
Integrate
Tab
Toggle decimal places 0..20
Delete
Delete entered digit
e
Exponential
Esc
Clear
Shift-Esc
Clear statistics memory
= or Enter
Execute binary calculation
%
Execute percentage calculations
12.3 With special thanks to ...
===============================
* Wolfgang Schirmer an Michael R. Sturm for
testing the software;
* Mark Paulhus, for checking the manual and
help texts;
* Tim Richardson and Daron Brewood, for
distributing Calc3a on internet and other
highways;
* Angelique (my girlfriend) with her endless
patience.
*